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For 16 years, Jill has been the ancient tree, wood pasture and parkland specialist for the Woodland Trust, the UK’s largest woodland conservation charity. The three main areas of her work have been in raising awareness of the importance of ancient trees and historic treescapes in rural and urban landscapes, developing The Ancient Tree Inventory – an online, citizen science database of ancient and other veteran trees in the UK, and campaigning for better policy and management to improve their care.
John Parker is Senior Arboriculture & Landscape Specialist at Transport for London. He is a member of the London Tree Officers Association (LTOA) Executive Committee and was Chair of the LTOA from 2016-2018. Amongst his priorities is to promote the work of public sector tree officers and managers. He is a member of the Institute of Chartered Foresters and the Arboricultural Association and in 2017 was awarded the title of European Young Urban Forester of the year by the European Forum on Urban Forestry. John is a regular contributor to industry publications and conferences in the UK and internationally.
Martin started his career in arboriculture at Forest Research in the halcyon days of acid rain but was soon looking into the ill-effects of saltused for winter de-icing on highway trees, the potential for establishing woodland on landfill sites and thence onto climate change research. After a spell at the Arboricultural Advisory and Information Service he launched into a solo career as an arboricultural consultant in 1997. Subsidence is a key element of his work and he has prepared many hundreds of expert witness reports. Martin delivers courses on trees and subsidence for the Arboricultural Association and MBL Seminars.
It is well known to arboriculturists that trees can cause subsidence damage to buildings built on shrinkable clay soils in hot dry summers. The mechanism of subsidence is fairly well understood and in many cases the remedy may be to fell the offending tree. But in some circumstances caution is urged due to anxiety that removal of the tree might cause heave damage. Heave is the reverse of subsidence; it is the upward movement of a building that occurs when aclay soil that has been dried out by tree roots recovers its natural moisture content and swells. This process is less well understood and gives rise to loss adjusters, engineers and arboriculturists, at times, offering inappropriate advice. The myth still persists that removal of a tree ‘in stages’ might mitigate the risk of heave. But the really difficult question posed by a householder considering felling a tree, which to their knowledge has caused no subsidence damage, is this: ‘will my house suffer from heave if I cut it down?’ This presentation will describe in easily understandable terms the mechanism of heave damage; when heave may occur (and when it won’t) and when it is safe to advise a client that there is no unreasonable risk of heave. It will also set out the presenter’s opinion that rumours of the risk of heave have been greatly exaggerated.
Gary Watson is currently Lead Scientist in Arboriculture at the Morton Arboretum. His primary research interest is in understanding how to maintain a healthy balance between the crown and the root system of trees on difficult landscape sites. Gary has received the Award for Arboricultural Research and Richard W. Harris Author’s Citation Award from the International Society of Arboriculture. He is a Past President of International Society of Arboriculture, the Arboricultural Research and Education Academy and the Illinois Arborist Association. Gary is also organizer of The Landscape Below Ground Conferences and author of The Practical Science of Planting Trees.
Up to 80% of urban tree problems originate below ground. Urban environments must provide the same essential soil resources as natural environments if trees are to maintain a healthy balance between the crown and root system. By understanding what soil resources trees rely on, we can manage the urban environment to optimize these features to the extent possible. The management challenge is to provide an urban soil environment that functions like the natural environment, though its appearance may be quite different
Juan is a biologist and arboriculturist, the fourth generation of a family of gardeners in the Basque Country, northen Spain. Trained as a gardener in Germany - NDHort (Munich) – he has worked in the RBG Kew, and as an intern in Longwood Gardens (USA). TWTS in Merrist Wood College. ISA Cert & TRAQ. He currently runs a Landscaping/Arboriculture Contracting company working and works as a contractor providing arboricultural services to the City of San Sebastian. Always happy to drive a thousand mile to see a beautiful tree.
The project in question was a roof planting on top of a five story underground building: the new bus station, bedside the River Urumea, in San Sebastian. Planning started two years prior to the start of the contract, with the tree species, soils and volumes identified.
The soils came from a French company, well known for the quality of their work in the south of France: Loreki. The trees (Aesculus x carnea 'Briotii' 60-70 8xv) were sourced from Lorenz von Ehren, Hamburg, in February 2014.
In summer 2015 the trees appeared to have bleeding canker (pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi), so the German nursery advised a change of species. The new species chosen was Tilia x europea 'Pallida' – famous from the lime-planted avenue, 'Unter den Linden', in Berlin.
The tree were planted between February and March 2016 and the first tree died in May 2016. By February 2017 three new trees that had been planted to replace dead ones had also died. The questions we asked were:
Finally, in March 2017, we felled all the trees, reconditioned the planting sites and replanted a new species tolerant to almost any soil and suitable for coastal localities, (as stated in Hillier) in a much smaller size: 18-20, the species: Fraxinus angustifolia 'Raywod'.
Dr. Glynn Percival is the Head of Research at the Bartlett Tree Research and Diagnostic Laboratory based at the University of Reading. Dr. Percival has presented papers on his work at an international and national level. He is the author of over 100 scientific papers, magazine articles and book chapters and on the editorial board for Arboriculture and Urban Forestry and Urban Forestry Urban Greening and is the co-editor of the proceedings of the Trees, People and Built Environment Conference, published by the Forestry Commission. Reading University made Dr Percival an honorary visiting research fellow, citing his valuable contributions within the Plant Science Department and the University. Dr. Percival is also a visiting lecturer at Kew Gardens. Dr. Percival was presented with the Arboricultural Association Award for 2017.
Soil compaction caused by landscape machinery, building construction and pedestrian footfall can impact detrimentally on the health and vitality of planted trees resulting in poor canopy coverage, limited stem extension growth and death. De-compacting soils relies heavily on industrial machinery that use extreme pressure to break up soils. Such technology can damage root systems and destroy the naturally occurring soil ecology. The use of vertical mulching (removal of soil cores from under the tree canopy and backfilling with a more suitable soil mix) in combination with the addition of worms to de-compact soils in urban landscapes has received no scientific investigation. Earthworms work in several ways to loosen compacted soil and improve its structure. They aerate the soil as they cut through it to create their tunnels and burrows. As they eat, they carry organic materials to new locations before eliminating them. As a result, both organic and inorganic materials are constantly churned through-out the soil profile. Washington State University reports that the movement of earthworms can improve soil porosity by as much as 400 percent. Aims of this talk will be to present results of a long term soil de-compaction program currently underway at Stockley Park, Uxbridge, London, one of Europe’s largest business parks where over 140,000 trees have been planted and established. At the conclusion of the presentation it is anticipated the audience will have an understanding of: i) depth and spacing of vertical mulching; ii) suitable soil amendment backfills to promote root growth, soil ecology and provide a hospitable environment for worm establishment; iii) the influence of treatments on soil biological activity, soil temperature, gaseous exchange within and outside the treatment area i.e. how vertical/horizontal movement of worms for example decompacts non-treated soil; and v) the long term efficacy of treatments on tree health and vitality.
Frédéric Ségur has university degrees in biology and ecology, and is also forest engineer. He works on urban forestry policy in France for more than 25 years, first as private consultant, then for the Greater Lyon authority where he has created the Trees and Landscape Department. This department is in charge of the city nature strategy, in particular with the “Tree Charter” that brings together more than 100 actors from the public, private and voluntary sectors. It also works on the landscape part of the urban projects, and the street trees management.
Frédéric is member of Plante et Cité scientific council (French institute managing research programs on urban landscape topics), and also Vice-President of Qualipaysage, French professional qualification organization for landscape companies.
Over the past twenty years, as part of the implementation of its Tree Charter, the Greater Lyon Authority has developed a comprehensive Soil Strategy. This focus on soils is considered as essential to enable the delivery of Greater Lyon’s aspirations to grow as a green city. It is the result of significant changes in the patterns of urban growth and development management, with on the one hand stricter protection of the outer-urban natural and agricultural land, and on the other growing needs for fertile growing media to support a strong increase in urban greening projects.
Lyon’s Soil Strategy is built around four major objectives:
Mark Roberts is an arboricultural consultant based in Dunedin, New Zealand. He is former President of the International Society of Arboriculture (ISA) and the NZ Arboricultural Association. His relaxed and approachable presenting style has seen him talk on varied topics across the world stage, including; ‘The myth of the urban forest’, Seoul (United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization). ‘Critical thinking in arboriculture’, Washington DC. ‘Risky Business’, Melbourne, Australia and ‘Tree protection during development’, Taipei, Taiwan.
Mark has regularly written industry articles for over 20 years, he has been published in several countriesandhis writing now includes an educational blog.
This presentation builds on ‘The myth of the urban forest’ which I gave in Seoul to the United Nations FAO. It explores the rate that change is occurring around our urban trees and questions the concept of the right tree in the right place.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that 60% of world’s population will live in urban areas by 2030. With the increase in urbanisation, comes increased spatial and environmental constraints on the urban forest. The ‘place’ that an urban tree grows in is likely to completely change two or three times during the life of the tree.Modern trees must be able to be managed and manipulatedas the site that they grow in changes around them.
This presentation looks at the reality of pruning practices, urban ecology and tree risk. We shall considerwho and what is actually driving urban tree management. And then we willlookat what we knowwe can do, what we have done, what can be done and what weneed to do going forward.
For our urban trees and those that manage them,change is the only constant.
Having worked in Arboriculture for over 20 years across the Midlands for various authorities, I have now settled into Telford and been here for over 12 years working and developing management approaches to accommodate a town growing in population, employment and appeal. Managing a species selection by removing / adding other tree types for future longevity and interest to create a diverse and varied tree population. Innovative approaches to managing woodland to increase resident participation, interest and ‘ownership’, to educate and raise awareness of the overall benefits that trees provide.
From the industrial birthplace of the world to the polaric opposite, Telford has been through prosperity, depravity, neglect, investment, development and criticism. Now Telford, with the foresight of landscape designers, guardians and management boasts a population in excess of 15 million trees, many of which have been established on poor soil and ground conditions.
This presentation looks at not only the treescape as it matures into the present day, its species make up and where improvements can be made but also how it can be improved and enhanced for the future. Poor soil and ground composition, much of which is re-profiled introduces challenges and obstacles which are reflected in our current management approaches.
After his MSc in Tropical Forestry at Wageningen University, Joris worked as Consulting Arborist for 15 years on tree growing site constructions and ecosystem functionality of trees in urban areas. With global climate change hurting urban economies and human well-being, his work now focuses on integrating urban (rain-) water management and green space, from productive Blue-Green roof systems to trees in the streets. His designs bring the circular ecosystem approach in to urban development, creating cities that treat water as a key resource, not as a nuisance. Just like in nature.
Rapid urbanization and climate change are creating immense pressure on cities and their inhabitants worldwide. Urban trees are a great and cost-effective ally in combatting the urban heat island effect and reducing the risk of urban flooding while providing crucial green space for human health and well-being. However, in increasingly dense cities we find that space for trees, and especially tree roots, is getting scarce. At times even Arborists and ‘Green-‘ professionals regard urban trees and green infrastructure as “victims” of rapid urbanisation.
This talk will explore how new innovative practices in managing urban water challenges (flooding and drought) are transforming our view on rainwater from “waste” to resource. By creating multi-functional green space in and on top of our cities we create economic, ecological and human value and help dampen urban climate change effects. This does not only require incorporation of new technology and products, but also a turnaround in the minds of Arborists and Green Infrastructure professionals: from ‘victim’ to new opportunities, from ‘discharge’ to harvest and from tree to ‘urban services provider’. Great strides in healthier trees, better growing sites and more efficient water management can be made when Arborists learn to look beyond the tree as a ‘stand-alone system’ and see the challenges we face as an opportunity for more respect and increased funding for our urban forests.
The many examples discussed illustrate that cities that treat water and green space with respect, the same way nature does, become cities that function like ecosystems, and with that move towards the resilient cities we want to create.