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Founder member and President of the Ancient Tree Forum and Honorary Vice President of the International Tree Foundation. He was awarded an MBE in recognition for his work in conservation especially trees and fungi. He was awarded an honorary lectureship by Imperial College, University of London for his outstanding contribution as a technician to science and education. He was given the Arboricultural Association Annual Award for his services to arboriculture. Ted was named one of the 100 Environmental Earthshakers of all time in the Guardian newspaper in 2006. Awarded the Gold medal by The Royal Forestry Society for services to forestry. Ted has worked for Natural England as Conservation Liaison Officer to the Crown Estates at Windsor and later became and remains their Conservation Consultant. Ted is a regular writer, broadcaster and speaks regularly at international conferences on ancient trees, Fungi .wood pasture and parkland.
Dr David Lonsdale is a consultant, author and educator, specialising in the biology, pathology and mechanical integrity of trees. After obtaining degrees at the universities of Southampton (1971) and Manchester University (1975), he led a wide range of research projects on tree diseases and decay for Forest Research until 2002. He also served on the Council of the British Mycological Society, of which he was Vice-president in 2000. Books written or edited by David include Habitat Conservation for Insects (1991), Principles of Tree Hazard Assessment and Management (1999) and Ancient and other Veteran Trees: further Guidance on Management (2013). He is a recipient of the Marsh Award for Insect Conservation from the Royal Entomological Society (2009) and the R.W. Harris Citation from the International Society of Arboriculture (2016).
Stephanie Hall is a barrister specialising in town and country planning with a particular specialism in trees. She is a tenant at Francis Taylor Building in London and has an associate tenancy at Kings Chambers in Manchester, Leeds and Birmingham.
She has a busy practice representing both local authorities and developers at planning appeals and in the Courts. Recently this has involved successfully challenging TPOs where they were preventing the development of important sites, representing those prosecuted for carrying out works and representing authorities.
Stephanie is ranked as one of the top 10 planning barristers under 35 and is also ranked within the top-rated planning juniors overall.
Gary Watson is currently Lead Scientist in Arboriculture at the Morton Arboretum. His primary research interest is in understanding how to maintain a healthy balance between the crown and the root system of trees on difficult landscape sites. Gary has received the Award for Arboricultural Research and Richard W. Harris Author’s Citation Award from the International Society of Arboriculture. He is a Past President of International Society of Arboriculture, the Arboricultural Research and Education Academy and the Illinois Arborist Association. Gary is also organizer of The Landscape Below Ground Conferences and author of The Practical Science of Planting Trees.
A field-grown tree loses up to 95% of its root system when dug from the nursery. Container-grown trees do not have extensive root loss, but their root system is small and confined to the container volume. Both types of trees produced in the nursery must develop a normal spreading root system in the landscape before they can be considered fully established. Until then, they will subject to stress, most severe immediately after planting. Above-ground growth will be slower until the root system is fully replaced. Maintenance practices and other factors contribute to ___ or slowing the rate of establishment. Large trees will take more time than small trees. Trees may never fully establish and regain normal vigor if the new space is too small for the root system.
Professor Andreas Roloff is head of the chair of Forest Botany since 1 January 1994 and works with his team all over the spectrum of forest and urban tree topics (tree biology), botany of woods, successional development and parks. His favourite scientific interest is to understand trees in their complete broad life cycle and adpatation mechanisms, not only parts of it and some special elements.
That covers the teaching, too. For this the direct structural connection to Tharandt Botanic Garden/Saxony State Arboretum is important and helpful, as he is director of this institution as well. His personal main research areas are urban trees and drought stress: there are so many questions and problems, and special know-how is essential for these subjects. Beside presentations on scientific meetings the chair is organizer of the annual Dresden Urban Tree Conference (Dresdner StadtBaumtage) every year in March, together with Dresden green space management.
The more we know about the character of many native and foreign woody species, the better we can manage, maintain, protect and use them. E.g., climate change has the consequence of modified strategies of tree maintenance and species selection, with strong importance to consider the tree's adaptation potential and plasticity. Future with trees.
Chair of Forest Botany
Director of Institute of Forest Botany and Forest Zoology
Director of Tharandt Botanic Garden
The effects of urban green areas can be differentiated into desirable influences associated with positive effects on human wellbeing and health and undesirable effects resulting in damages, risks and danger to human health. Choosing optimal and suitable trees and shrubs in urban areas can minimize the negative influences and increase the positive effects and the aesthetic acceptance by urban residents.
Additional challenges in the selection of trees and shrubs are user requirements and growth conditions at urban sites. Therefore, the selection of planted woody species in cities has to incorporate these location-specific factors.
Based on an extensive literature review, more than 390 woody plants were investigated to obtain a comprehensive assessment of specific characteristics by integrating specific urban aspects. Within this study, a database was developed that allows users to simultaneously consider site characteristics, natural distribution, tree appearance, ecosystem services, management activities, and the risks and interferences caused by urban woody plants.
Based on reliable publications, a new Climate-Species-Matrix has been developed to extensively classify and assess urban trees and shrubs with regards to their usability after predicted climate changes. In a two-dimensional assessment, four degrees of drought resistance and winter robustness are the decisive criteria. The woody species were placed into 16 categories by decreasing tolerance, ranging from 1-1 (very suitable) to 4-4 (very limited usability).
This categorization provides a sound basis for decisions in planning the use of woody species in cities. The planning process must also include additional criteria, dependent on individual requirements such as soil parameters, shade resistance, aesthetics, etc. The developed databases are useful for preventing mistakes in planning, which would otherwise result in higher ecologic and economic costs. Choosing the right species for the right location will also increase the floristic biodiversity within urban tree plantings and the sustainable uses of urban trees.
Dr. Andrew D. Hirons is a Senior Lecturer in Arboriculture at University Centre Myerscough, UK. He teaches modules relating to tree biology, tree establishment and tree management. His current research activity is motivated by the need to create resilience in our urban forests, and is focused on using plant traits to inform species selection for urban environments.
This work has resulted in a number of publications, including Tree Species Selection for Green Infrastructure: A Guide for Specifiers published by Trees and Design Action Group (TDAG). Andrew is also the co-author of Applied Tree Biology, published by Wiley Blackwell.
Tree species selection will play an increasingly important role in the establishment and performance of our future urban forest. High quality guidance on species selection is scarce or dispersed across a wide range of literature. This has led to an over-reliance on tree nursery literature to inform selection decisions. Consequently, there is a need to consolidate information on tree species selection and make it widely available to those with responsibility for procuring trees for our future urban forest. This presentation will summarise how key plant traits, such as leaf turgor loss and the water potential at 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity, can be used to improve the quality of information available on species selection. It will also introduce a new Trees and Design Action Group guide Tree Selection for Green Infrastructure: A guide for specifiers.
Simon Toomer has worked as a forester, land management advisor and arboriculturalist in private, local authority and charity sectors. In his current role with the National Trust, he is a national consultant for all areas of plant conservation including plant health.
Simon previously worked for 15 years as Curator and Director at Westonbirt, The National Arboretum where he was responsible for overseeing the management and development of the tree collection and visitor attraction. He is Chair of PlantNetwork, and a member of the Plant Conservation Committee of Plant Heritage. He is a profession member of the Arboricultural Association.
An examination of the art and science of planning for sustainable tree replenishment in historical landscapes. Finding the balance between conserving distinctive design style while ensuring resilience to change and uncertainty. How to choose species that preserve ‘spirit of place’.
It is not just threats from pests and diseases, changing climate and soils that provide challenges and necessitate a new approach; changing public expectations, visitor pressures and resourcing will all influence what species and cultivars will be represented in the heritage and historical landscapes of the future.
Using examples from a number of registered historical parks and gardens, the presentation will describe the philosophy, rationale and decision process involved in determining species choice. It will include suggested plant ‘substitutions’ for specific tree characteristics and landscaping situations.
Tim is the principal consultant of Tim O’Hare Associates, the UK’s leading independent soil and landscape science practice. He has been a soil scientist for over 20 years, working predominantly in the commercial landscape, construction and sports agronomy sectors, and covering anything from domestic garden projects to colliery restoration schemes to major construction developments.
Tim holds a BSc(Hons) in Geography and an MSc in Soil Science. He is a Member of the Institute of Professional Soil Scientists, the British Society of Soil Science, the British Institute of Agricultural Consultants and the Science Council. His particular areas of expertise include: soil survey and land evaluation, topsoil quality assessment, topsoil manufacture, soil specification, sports pitch agronomy, urban tree soils, tree pit design and habitat creation.
Tim sits on the BSi working group responsible for updating the British Standard for Topsoil (BS3882:2015) and writing the British Standard for Subsoil (BS8601:2013). He was co-author of DEFRA’s Code of Practice for the Sustainable Use and Management of Soils on Construction Sites (published 2009). He is also a technical advisor to the Sports and Play Construction Association (SAPCA).
He has worked on a wide variety of assignments throughout the UK and internationally. Tim and his team were the appointed Soil Scientists for pre- and post- games at the London Olympic Park and Athletes’ Village, and were responsible for specifying, sourcing, testing, monitoring and signing off all landscape soils (250,000m3) throughout the park.
Other projects have included: Terminal 5 Heathrow, British Sugar Topsoil, Jubilee Park (Canary Wharf), Jubilee Gardens (South Bank, London), A3 Hindhead By-Pass (Surrey), Chavasse Park (Liverpool), Education City (Qatar), Westergasfabriek (Netherlands), Commonwealth Park (Gibraltar).
Anne is an urban planner, with 15 years experience in environmentally-led approaches to urban regeneration and development. She currently works as an independent consultant – focusing on projects that seek to deliver better places through the use of green infrastructure (GI), provide practitioners with a better understanding of the role GI can play, or identify practices and ways-of-working that achieve best results in this field. This brought her to lead the research and writing of the Trees and Design Action Group (TDAG),/span>’s two latest publications: Trees in the Townscape: A Guide for Decision Makers (2012) and Trees in Hard Landscapes: A Guide for Delivery (2014) – two action-oriented best practice guides on using trees in 21st century cities. Anne is currently developing a third companion document due for publication at the end of the year to be titled Trees, Planning and Development: A Guide for Delivery.
Both industry standards such as BS 8545: 2014 and good practice guides such as Trees in Hard Landscapes: A Guide for Delivery have emphasised that, when it comes to urban tree planting, below-ground conditions hold much of the key to success. In urban settings, with often very little actual soil to speak of and a wide array of design constraints to meet (from load bearing requirements to space and access provisions for underground utilities), the comforting certainty seemingly brought by soil volume matrices and standard ‘pit’ designs are not as helpful as they seem. Both have purposefully been left out of the two references named above. Instead, a strong emphasis is placed on the informed facilitator role the tree and landscape specialists need to play to lead a cross-disciplinary and collaborative below-ground design process that yields solutions that are unique to each project and circumstances.
This session will explore the balance of science and art that can best enable tree and landscape specialists get in the driving seat to achieve better solutions for urban tree planting in contemporary urban settings. This exploration will go beyond the sole question of ‘soils’ and ‘soil volumes’ (which so often dominate urban tree planting discussions) to consider the wider below-ground parameters the tree/landscape specialist should seek to influence or shape such as available space, choice of substrate – which might include only a small proportion of actual soil, etc.). This exploration will also look at the tools or strategies one might use to inform and facilitate a design process where below-ground considerations are not an after-though or un-thought item.
Nelda Matheny is President of HortScience, Inc. in Pleasanton California, a horticulture, arboriculture, and urban forestry consulting firm she founded in 1983. Nelda specializes in soil and water quality assessment, plant problem diagnosis, landscape management, tree risk assessment and tree preservation during construction. She and her partner Jim Clark have authored many technical articles and five books together. Nelda’s most recent co-authored publications include Best Management Practices: Tree Risk Assessment and Structural Pruning: A Guide for the Green Industry.
As development density increases in urban areas, spaces for planting have become more and more restricted. Trees have to share smaller and smaller spaces with storm water management areas, utilities, pedestrians, cyclists, vehicles, and structures. These mixed uses are often dealt with by engineering the spaces in ways that may compromise efforts to increase canopy cover and maximize benefits trees provide. This presentation will describe the presenter’s experience in the San Francisco Bay Area with planting and maintaining trees in engineered soils, modified pavement treatments, planting areas over structure, and in storm water management areas.
Educated Horticulturist and Björn has been in horticulture since 1976 and is employed, as a Tree Officer since 2001, at the Traffic Administration in the City of Stockholm. For the last 15 years he has been in charge of trees along streets and squares in Stockholm and responsible for maintenance and investments of the trees. Has been a driving force in the Stockholm City Development of plant beds for trees in paved areas and produced a manual for this purpose.
The construction has been further evolved to become an alternative for storm water management in cities and becomes a part in counteracting the negative effects of climate change in cities.
Since 2009, a further development of the planting beds where biochar is an important ingredient in the plant bed. Biochar acts as a substitute for soil and can also act as a filter to capture nutrients in storm water. After a win of Mayors Challenge 2014, the City of Stockholm in 2016 to build its own plant to produce biochar garden waste submitted to the city’s recycling facilities.
Prosperous tree and functioning plant beds have a great impact on the environment in the city.
A solution for how to avoid damage on soils both during the construction phase and during the expected life of the plant beds by using sorted stable materials as supporting elements. And the result is a substrate that almost becomes an indestructible soil mixture.
Using sorted material as base in the substrates makes it is easy to calculate the capacity of the materials, such as infiltration of storm water.
Since 2009 biochar has become an important ingredient in the development of urban soils.
The material in the substrate is made from recycled material, such as garden waste, crushed sorted stone, bricks, concrete assorted in macadam fractions.
Along with biochar and compost from recycling waste materials allows us to stop using finite resources and get the best materials for growing plants in stressed environments.
It also becomes part of a circular economy which is essential for sustainable cities.
When we use biochar and compost and infiltrate storm water, we improve the ability to clean water and reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere we also mitigate the heat island effect on cities and the risk of flooding is reduced.
The construction has been further evolved to become an accepted standard solution for storm water management in the city.
It has become a part in counteracting the negative effects of climate change in cities as well as minimize damage to the recipients the Baltic Sea and Lake Mälaren.
The ability to handle storm water also reduces the load on sewage systems and treatment plants.
Biochar acts as a substitute for soil and can also act as a filter to capture nutrients in storm water.
After a win of Mayors Challenge 2014, the City of Stockholm in 2016 built its own plant to produce biochar from garden waste submitted to the city's recycling facilities. The produced biochar is used in Stockholm plant beds.
So far, we have planted around thousand trees with different biochar mixtures.
Wendy Batenburg is an arboricultural consultant and involved in research & development at Terra Nostra. She worked as a senior research scientist at an academic institution for years and published many scientific papers in international journals. In 2015 she started working in arboriculture at Terra Nostra. Terra Nostra is an innovative arboricultural consultancy in the Netherlands involved in scientific research. Together with different methods for tree assessment, Terra Nostra uses advanced techniques such as the ground penetrating radar, light weight deflectometer and the tree pulling test to asses urban trees and their tree planting sites.
Reliable infrastructure and the urban forest are in constant battle and this will become even more evident since cities will grow and renew. Straightforward, a compromise between good infrastructure and healthy trees can be achieved using structural soil. Structural soil consists of a rigid stone base supplemented with organic matter and soil. There are many types of structural soil, using different types of stone or supplements. The load-bearing capacity of structural soil is high enough to be processed as subbase under walkways, roads and parking lots. In the Netherlands this product has been used in tree planting sites for years, but results have often been disappointing. Contractors often stick to what they know and do not process the structural soil as indicated, often adding another layer of heavily compacted subbase on top of the structural soil, completely closing of the surface of the tree site. Caution must also be taken when processing structural soil: too wet and the structural soil will become muddy and difficult to compact. After drying, or after too much compaction, this can result in an impenetrable layer, limiting vertical movement of water, oxygen and expanding roots. Therefore, it is important to check and assess a tree site with structural soil. Design, water content and compaction should be monitored during construction of a tree planting site. Our experience with structural soil in the Netherlands will be the basis to introduce a novel technique to measure compaction of structural soil, and define recommendations for the construction and assessment of tree sites with stone based structural soil. This can contribute to the quality of tree sites with structural soil and consequently strengthen the sustainability of the urban forest.