Wednesday Speakers


Brian Crane

Brian Crane 

United Kingdom

Life and Death - Sheffield’s highway tree removal programme

Abstract

In 2012 Sheffield City Council entered into a 25 year Private Finance Initiative Highway Maintenance contract with Amey Hallam Limited. This was a boundary to boundary contract which also gave the contractor responsibility for tree street management. The contractor began to rectify a backlog of road and footpath restoration, partly by the removal of trees which were perceived to be causing damage to either foot or carriageways. Several hundred trees were removed. Local residents groups questioned the grounds on which trees with long safe, useful life expectancies were being felled in instances where fairly minor surfacing repairs would have provided safe passage along roads. Sheffield Trees Action Group (STAG) was formed as an 'umbrella' organisation and an injunction was taken out to force the Council to cease felling until the matter was considered fully. I initially advised that merely stressing the aesthetic value of trees would not be sufficient to uphold the injunction and that evidence of the monetary asset value of trees and the eco-system benefits they provide would be necessary. A sample survey was carried out - this showed that removal of trees was premature and not justified by the highway works necessary to provide acceptable surfacing accessible to everyone. Using recent research, a case was presented showing the benefits of trees within the urban setting. It was interesting that Council documentation showed no appreciation of current thinking on such benefits. My submission centred entirely on the premise that the value of trees outweighed the costs of their management. The heard at the High Court (QBD) between in late March 2016. The Court's decision was expected on 5 April, to date, it has not been issued.

Biography

Brian Crane is a Chartered Arboriculturist and Chartered Horticulturist. He has been a Registered Consultant of the Association for 25 years. He has given presentations on a number of subjects in the UK and Europe. His principal interests are in urban tree management, the benefits of urban forestry and avenue management. Whilst at Capel Manor College, he formed the Arboriculture and Amenity Forestry Section.

Lynne Boddy

Lynne Boddy 

United Kingdom

Invasion of wood in standing trees

Abstract

Wood decay usually begins in the hostile environment of the standing tree – hostile because of the high water content of functional sapwood, allelopathic extractives and low pH of heartwood, and defence responses of cells where these are living. Entry is also made difficult by the physicochemical barrier of the bark. Fungi operate different colonization strategies that can be divided into 5 categories, which are not mutually exclusive: heart rot; unspecialized opportunism – wound colonizers; active pathogenesis; specialized opportunism – latency; and secondary colonizers. These strategies and the developing invasion patterns will be reviewed, and illustrated with examples from broadleaved trees.

Biography

Lynne has researched the ecology of wood decomposition since the 1970s. She has pioneered work on the community structure and dynamics of wood decay fungi, especially how fungi fight each other, and invertebrate associations with wood decay fungi. She is currently trying to understand: (1) how heart rot communities develop in wood; (2) the molecular mechanisms of fungal combat; (3) the extent of interactions between bacteria and fungi in wood; and (4) how climate change is affecting fungi. Lynne is a leading authority on basidiomycete ecology, and has published over 250 papers and books on the ecology of wood decomposition.


Dealga O’Callaghan

Dealga O’Callaghan 

United Kingdom

A Review of the TPO System – Creation, Application & what can go wrong

Abstract

Dealing with tree preservation orders (TPOs) is an important component of the work of both Consultants & Contractors; and arguably a major component of the work of Arboricultural Officers. It is unique to Britain and has been in place for over sixty years. This paper explores why then is this subject to so many mistakes and errors?

The presentation is a brief overview of the TPO system how it works and how it should work. It addresses issues such as creation and confirmation of TPOs and associated common problems. It deals with the application process using 1APP and how the local planning authorities (LPAs) respond; the common reasons given for refusal of consent; conditions and variations using examples to illustrate the difficulties that can and do arise.

The issue of appeals against refusals is addressed and is used to illustrate the current state of the TPOs within the LPAs in England; the impact of the 2012 Regulations; how LPAs seem to be dealing with this and how the system could be improved.

Biography

Dr O'Callaghan currently practices as a Chartered Arboricultural Consultant based in Liverpool. His background is in Education and Research. He has published a number of peer reviewed papers on various aspects of Arboriculture; Pest & Disease Control; Planning & Development and Utility Arboriculture. He acts as an Expert Witness in both Civil and Criminal cases in the English, Irish, Welsh and Manx Court systems. He has given evidence in numerous public inquiries. He is currently registered as a non salaried inspector at the Planning Inspectorate (PINS) for TPO Fastrack appeals and other related case work.

Jason Miesbauer

Jason Miesbauer 

USA

Targeted pruning of branches that lack collars: How pruning cut angle and location affect wound closure and dysfunctional wood attenuation

Abstract

The science and practice of arboriculture has advanced dramatically over the past 30 years or so. One of the most significant developments has been the recommendation of making pruning cuts at the branch collar as opposed to making flush cuts. The primary benefit of pruning at the branch collar is that the extent of discoloured and decayed wood behind the wound is likely to be less than when flush cuts are made. Unfortunately, many branches have no visible branch collar. This is often the case for branches that originate high in the canopy, branches with an aspect ratio close to 1:1 (codominant), branches that are close to vertical in orientation, or branches than have included bark. Although pruning guidelines stipulate that branches should be pruned just beyond the branch collar, there is no scientific basis on which to make recommendations for target pruning cut locations on branches that lack a visible collar. This presentation will discuss recently completed research investigating the effects of target cut location, size, and angle on wound closure and the spread of dysfunctional wood 3 years after the pruning cuts were made on 2 species of trees.

Biography

Jason "Jake" Miesbauer is an Arboriculture Scientist at The Morton Arboretum. His research focuses on tree pruning, tree biomechanics, and tree risk management. Jake earned his Ph.D. from the University of Florida and his Bachelor of Science degree from University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point. Jake is an ISA Certified Arborist with several years of experience as a practicing arborist. He actively engages in outreach to the tree care industry and has presented on topics that include: tree biomechanics, restoration of storm damaged trees, proper tree pruning methods, tree planting and stabilization, and safety in arboriculture.


Andrew Koeser

Andrew Koeser 

USA

Assessment of likelihood of failure using limited visual, basic, and advanced assessment techniques

Abstract

Tree risk assessment can range from a quick inspection of a population of trees from a passing vehicle to an equipment-intensive examination of the structural integrity of single high-value specimen. In arboriculture and urban forestry, practitioners must select a risk assessment method that is appropriate for the tree or trees assessed, available resources, and management objectives. While more advanced risk assessment levels are believed to provide more accurate information regarding likelihood of failure (a component of tree risk), it is not clear how this additional information influences risk ratings. For this experiment we compared likelihood of failure ratings for trees assessed by 70 arborists using Level 1 (limited visual), Level 2 (basic), and Level 3 (advanced) risk assessment methods. This presentation highlights the impact of level of assessment on average rating for likelihood of failure. In addition, our work investigates the impact of level or risk assessment on the consistency of risk ratings.

Biography

Andrew Koeser is an assistant professor at the University of Florida Gulf Coast Research and Education Center near Tampa, Florida. His research is focused primarily on tree risk as it relates to occupancy estimation, assessment of tree failure potential, and professional/public risk perception/acceptance. In addition to his research, Andrew and his team have authored Florida’s first photographic tree and palm identification guide series (Trees: North and Central Florida, Trees: South Florida and the Keys, and the upcoming Palms and Palm-like Plants of Florida). Andrew is an ISA Board Certified Master Arborists, ISA Tree Risk Assessment Qualified, and a 2015 recipient of the ISA Early Career Scientist Award.

Henry Kuppen

Henry Kuppen 

Netherlands

Ash dieback control based on tree risk management

Abstract

There are several pest and diseases threatening tree populations. Most of the time eradication is not possible due to the large extent of infection or infestation. However, integrated pest and disease management (IPM) can offer opportunities to minimize the risk or even contain and control the threat.

The fungal disease, ash dieback (Chalara fraxinea) is having devastating effects on the ash population in the Netherlands. Chalara can pose a safety risk due to dead branches or dieback of an entire tree. Affected trees should be inspected according to IPM principles in combination with site-specific risk assessment. IPM allows you to act in a different manner for every affected tree. Since trees might recover, removal of infected trees is in some cases unnecessary. A large study performed in Utrecht included inspection and risk assessment of more than 1500 ash tree species with different degrees of infection. For every species a management strategy was designed based on degree of infection, location and risk profile. Monitoring of ash trees is essential to control ash dieback and manage the risks involved. In the end, pest and diseases could impose a natural selection of the most resistant trees, which could possibly result in a healthy population of trees. IPM plays a central role in this story.

Biography

Henry Kuppen is managing director of Terra Nostra, consultancy and knowledge centre for trees and soil in The Netherlands and has 33 years of experience in the tree-care sector. Henry is an innovator and develops solutions for (practical) management and policy related issues for trees in an urban environment. He specializes on integrated management of pest and diseases in trees. He has developed new treatment methods and management strategies to battle pest and diseases in the Netherlands.


David Evans

David Evans 

United Kingdom

Tree risk: Safety in numbers and words

Abstract

The world of tree risk assessment and management tends to fall into one of two camps. A ‘quantitative’ approach pioneered by Quantified Tree Risk Assessment (QTRA). Or the ‘qualitative’ route the International Society of Arboriculture has gone down with Tree Risk Assessment Qualification (TRAQ). This presentation will explore a best of both worlds, third way, that marries the benefits of both quantitative numbers and qualitative words.

Foundations will be laid down by exploring the key concepts of risk tolerance, how uncertainty in risk is best measured and expressed, and the principles that constitute good forecasting. With footings firmly fixed, the advantages and pitfalls from the clarity but implied exactness associated with numbers, and the simplicity but ambiguity attached to words, will be examined. A robust quantitative framework will then be constructed on which a qualitative superstructure is hung. The third way is an easy to understand and use, transparently proportionate, and cost-effective solution to the horns of the tree risk dilemma, that benefits both the tree risk assessor and tree risk manager.

Biography

David Evans is the Principal Consultant at The Arbor Centre. Having accidentally got into trees, whilst on a career path to becoming President of Chile, he has previously worked as a Climbing Arborist, Yellow Pages Binder, Arboricultural Lecturer, and Mud Volleyball Pitch Curator – though not necessarily in that order.

Apart from the consultancy work, for the last 10 years, David has been one of the principal QTRA and Probability of Failure trainers, delivering workshops internationally, and an invaluable contributor to the development of QTRA. He has presented at arboricultural events in the UK, USA, Canada, Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore.

David is currently dipping his toes back into the academic stream by undertaking a PhD into the VALID approach to estimating Likelihood of Failure in trees, and its role in tree risk assessment.

Steve Turnbull

Steve Turnbull 

United Kingdom

Tree risk management at Windsor

Abstract

Windsor Great Park, the only Royal Park managed by the Crown Estate, was once part of a vast Norman hunting forest which was enclosed in the late 13th Century.

Today Windsor Great Park comprises some 6,000 hectares of parkland and forests. The antiquity of the landscape is enhanced by creating an assembly of the great ancient oaks, along with veteran trees of many other species, all of which are of national importance.

The natural diversity of the park provides specific habitats for many species of flora and fauna, some of which can only be found within Windsor Great Park.

Tree management at Windsor, particularly tree risk management, is on a scale second to none, especially as the majority of the parkland and forests have full public access. The estate receives over 5 million visitors per annum. Many diverse user groups are catered for from walkers to horse riders, cyclists and fishermen.

This presentation will introduce the tree management system employed at Windsor, discussing all aspects of risk management, which has to adhere to the Crown Estate’s duty of care for visitors and the wider public as well as its obligation to maintain and enhance such a unique historic landscape now and for generations to come.

Biography

Leaving the army in 1984 Steve joined the Windsor team as a gardener in the Valley Gardens. Having seen tree surgery being carried out by contractors Steve made the decision to become a tree surgeon.

Training at Merrist Wood in 1985 he achieved his goal. Over the last 30 years Steve has progressed his career gaining relevant qualifications alongside working daily in the canopies of magnificent trees.

Working up through the ranks to the role of Arboricultural Manager he now runs a team of 8 arborists and tree inspectors with his unique knowledge and experience of ancient trees.